My research is centered on the physiology of marine mammals and sea turtles, particularly as it informs their conservation. I graduated from Cornell University in 2016 with a B.S. in Animal Science. While my undergraduate studies were primarily focused on the anatomy and physiology of domestic species, I knew early on that I wanted to work in the field of wildlife conservation. A summer spent rehabilitating stranded seals and sea otters at the Alaska SeaLife Center confirmed my budding interest in marine mammals, and I spent my final year at Cornell focusing on ecology and marine biology. After graduating, I spent six months rescuing and necropsying manatees as an intern with the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. From there, I accepted a position as a Stranding Technician at the Institute for Marine Mammal Studies where I responded to strandings across the Mississippi Gulf Coast, rehabilitated sea turtles and cetaceans, and participated in boat based photo-identification surveys of bottlenose dolphins. I am excited to now be back on the West Coast working as the Stranding Coordinator for the MLML Marine Mammal & Sea Turtle Stranding Network.
I joined the Vertebrate Ecology Lab here at MLML in the fall of 2018, and I am thrilled to be studying marine mammal physiology under the guidance of Dr. Birgitte McDonald. My thesis research is part of a collaborative NSF-funded elephant seal translocation study. Within the context of this larger work, my project examines the physiological effects of scientific handling on northern elephant seals. By measuring simultaneous endocrine, cardiovascular, and blood chemistry stress throughout the translocation procedure, I hope to clarify the complex physiological changes induced by research handling. Since physiological stress artifacts likely influence the parameters that researchers are measuring, both science and animal welfare benefit from disentangling the effects of scientific handling on marine mammals.
By Brijonnay Madrigal (SEC Program Assistant & Graduate Student at Moss Landing Marine Labs)
Did you know that fish make sounds? They do! Some fish species, like the rockfish you eat in your fish tacos, are soniferous (sound producing). Fish produce a drumming sound by striking the gasbladder (swim bladder) and the sonic muscle together. Rockfish (Genus Sebastes spp.) are a genus that produce low frequency sounds associated with agonistic interactions and territorial defense. Due to this ability, it is proposed that rockfish may elicit an acoustic response due to increased noise produced by survey vehicles used to study rockfish populations. This concept fueled NOAA’s desire to deploy hydrophones to record survey vehicle operations in Southern California and rockfish in these areas. This acoustic work was one component of the Untrawlable Habitat Strategic Initiative (UHSI) SoCal Project, a collaborative effort between NOAA Northwest, Alaska, and Southeast Fisheries Science Centers. The goal of the 2-year project was to assess rockfish response to survey vehicles and determine the biases in studying rockfish using vehicles such as AUV’s (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles- like the one displayed at the SEC) and HOV’s (Human Operated Submersibles). Cruises were conducted in the Channel Islands in October 2016 and this last month in October 2017. Last year I was a data analyst for the project but this year, I got the opportunity to be a part of the research team onboard. I worked along scientists from the SWFSC Fisheries Ecology Division in Santa Cruz, CA and NWFSC Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring Division in Newport, OR. My role was to handle all operations for the 3 hydrophones we deployed along with a variety of sensors including a turbidity meter, light sensors, and accelerometers. The cruise was 2 ½ weeks long and the longest duration of time I had ever spent at sea so I was excited to get away from land for a bit and live on a ship for 18 days!
Home at Sea
The ship that would be my home for the next 2 ½ weeks was the Velero IV (Figure 1), a shipping vessel from Seattle, Washington that had been modified for this project. An extra sleeping quarters had been transferred onboard as well as a lab for the scientist that consisted of a one room cubicle with benches that they had placed on the ship using a crane. We spent the first day docked in Ventura Harbor preparing the platforms we would be deploying. The 3 platforms (Figure 2) (each named after a different Fisheries Science Center) were fitted with DIDSON imaging sonar, that produce images of the fish used to quantify species and measure fish lengths. MOUSS cameras were also placed on the platforms which took pictures every 2 seconds and are used to assess fish movement, species diversity and abundances. While the research team worked on putting together the platforms, the submersible team was hard at work preparing the DeepWorker manned submersible which would be used to deploy the platforms on the sea floor (Figure 3). We departed from Ventura, CA on October 9th and set out to sea at sunset. I was nervous at first, wondering what the conditions would be like especially since I am prone to seasickness but fortunately, almost every day was beautiful and calm in sunny Southern California.
A Typical Day
There was no need for my phone alarm in the morning because between the loud clanking of the anchor being pulled up and the smell of bacon, we were always up by 6:30am. The Velero IV would leave Smuggler’s Cove off Santa Cruz Islands and after a short journey to our survey area would arrive at site at 7am. Our survey area was Footprint Bank, an area between Santa Cruz and Anacapa Island where 3 sites had been determined as locations to deploy the platforms. Once on site, the science team turned on all devices, placed them on the platforms and then with the help of the crew and sub team, the platforms were lowered over the side of the vessel. The sub attached a line to the platform using a metal claw that would allow the platform to be descended to the bottom (Figure 4). Once at the bottom, the sub operator would un-attach the line and we would then continue to the next site. After all 3 platforms were deployed we would leave the area and return to Smuggler’s Cove for a 3-hour period while the NOAA Shimada vessel conducted AUV flybys and seafloor mapping. At approximately 3pm we would return to Footprint Bank and the sub might conduct some flyby passes near the platforms prior to retrieving the platforms before sunset.
Amazing Marine Life
Throughout the day we would always see marine mammal. I was the only marine mammal scientist onboard so if marine mammals were sighted, the crew and research team always called me to the top deck to identify species. We saw pods of bottlenose dolphin, long-beaked common dolphin, Risso’s dolphin and an extremely active lone humpback breaching and tale slapping one day. After we headed back in and anchored in Smuggler’s Cove for the night, I would go up to the bow of the ship to see the “show”. Bioluminescence glowed green in the water and even in the middle of the night you could see sea lions chased schools of fish and track the movements underwater as their bodies glowed green…it was like Fourth of July in October! One night, as we were heading into Santa Barbara to anchor up for the night, I was looking at the water from the top deck when suddenly, I saw these green glowing torpedoes moving in the water near the bow of the vessel, spinning and crossing each other as they glided through the water. I went down to the bow to get a closer look and saw they were dolphins bow riding! The bioluminescence in the water was causing their torpedo shaped bodies to be outlined by a green glow which allowed you to see their every movement in the dark water. It was the most amazing thing I had ever seen!
Rockfish are a dominant demersal fish species in benthic ecosystems and are of recreational and commercial importance in California. The UHSI project is important as it will shed light on some important implications for ground fish research and the anthropogenic impacts on these species. I was grateful to have the opportunity to be involved in the data collection process, so I could gain a better understanding of the project and perspective on the data. Going out to sea makes all the long hours of analyzing data and staring at a computer screen worth it!
I've taken a diverse approach to my passion for biology and being out in the field. I currently focus on studying the movement and feeding ecology of Striated Caracaras in the Falkland Islands. An amazing bird! They're social, gregarious, run as much as they fly, and fill a similar ecological niche as the North American raven. Birds of prey are sentinel species of the earth’s environment, so I have a deep passion for contributing scientific knowledge that can guide conservation and management programs.
For my Master’s thesis, I am collaborating with Hawk Mountain Sanctuary to develop energy budget estimates for the striated caracara using 3D acceleration loggers. Knowing caracaras’ energy needs is essential to understand their ecological role and to better assess how human-dominated landscapes might affect their survival.
In addition to my research, I also work on sailing vessels as well as in small boat ops, assisting coastal California research efforts as experienced field crew, including operating vessels, performing marine bird and mammal surveys, and photographic ID work for long-term baleen whale studies.
The biological world stuns me, and I want to share that with others. I do that through writing about local research and science-based ecological restoration. I've published in Bay Nature, for NOAA Fisheries', and in Salish Sea Currents.
I obtained my BA in American Studies from Stanford University and built my foundation in biology through additional coursework at the University of Washington's Friday Harbor Laboratories and the College of Marin.
I graduated from California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, with a B.S. in Biological Science concentrating in Marine Science and Conservation. During my undergraduate studies, I took part in research with tropical coral fish, range-size studies of temperate fish, male elephant seal population surveys and pathology of marine mammals. It was my time working at The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) doing animal husbandry and rescue that solidified my desire to pursue work with wild marine mammals. When I began interning in the Vertebrate Ecology Lab at MLML, I had the opportunity to assist other students in a variety of projects. This included humpback whale identification, UCSC elephant seal monitoring, Risso’s dolphin vocalization and identification, as well as the Marine Mammal Stranding Network.
Currently, I am a third year graduate student at MLML. For my thesis I am studying northern elephant seals and their natural diving physiology. This includes recording their heart rate throughout natural dives and comparing it to their dive depth, duration, and movement. This research will give us insight into how these incredible divers are capable of long duration dives and how they are managing their oxygen.
My passion lies in marine mammal acoustics and the communication and behavioral function of vocalizations. In Spring 2016, I graduated from the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa with a B.S. in Marine Biology and a B.A. in Communication. As an undergraduate, I was selected as a NOAA Ernest F. Hollings Scholarship recipient. Through this program, I completed a research internship at the NOAA Southeast Fisheries Science Center, where I determined sperm whale abundance using passive acoustic data. This experience started marine mammal acoustics pursuits. I have since been involved in field studies, volunteer opportunities and internships to study and learn various aspects of cetacean acoustics, behavior, husbandry and psychology in Hawai’i, Florida and Puerto Rico. I served as a research assistant for a project conducted in collaboration with both the U.S. Navy and the Hawai’i Institute of Marine Biology Marine Mammal Research Program, to assess dolphin presence through whistle detection at sonar detonation sites.
Currently, I am a fourth year student under the direction of Dr. Alison Stimpert and Dr. Gitte McDonald. My master’s thesis is on characterizing acoustic behavior of odontocete species and is comprised of two parts: (1) A data analysis of passive acoustic data (provided by the NOAA Alaska Fisheries Science Center) of killer whales from the Bering and Chukchi Sea, Alaska to formulate a vocal catalog of pulsed calls. (2) A passive acoustic study of free-ranging Risso's dolphin whistle and burst pulse vocal repertoires in Monterey Bay, California.
I graduated from San Jose State University with a B.S. in Biological Science focusing in Marine Science. During my undergraduate studies, I was an animal husbandry and rescue volunteer for the Marine Mammal Center, while interning in the Vertebrate Ecology Lab at MLML. Through my experience as a volunteer I acquired a foundational skill set for working with wild pinnipeds which enhanced my curiosity about how these animals survive in extreme environments. As an intern in the Vertebrate Ecology Lab, I had the opportunity to assist in a variety of projects. This included being a member of the Marine Mammal Stranding Network, assisting with diet analysis of California Sea Lions, and volunteering with elephant seal demographic studies at UCSC.
Currently, I am a fourth year student under the direction of Dr. Gitte McDonald. My research aims to investigate the influence of maternal foraging strategy on reproductive output in Northern elephant seals using stable isotope analysis. This project is being done in collaboration with the Costa Lab at UC Santa Cruz.
My love for the ocean started at a young age. I grew up playing in the tidepools and I have never lived far from the water. I received my B.S. in Ecology, Behavior, and Evolution from UC San Diego, and then spent a number of years working abroad, first as Peace Corps volunteer in the Republic of Vanuatu and later as a project coordinator for a sea turtle conservation group in Costa Rica and volunteer coordinator for various conservation projects.
I am currently in my fourth year as a graduate student with the Vertebrate Ecology Lab. My research interests include reproductive energetics of sea turtles and the use of stable isotopes to understand migration and foraging patterns. I am currently working on establishing a collaborative project with biologists from Costa Rica.
My interests in ecology began at a young age as I interned with the Lawrence Hall of Science and Berkeley Botanical Garden, teaching youth biology classes. I took a more marine focus as a student at UC Santa Cruz (UCSC) where I joined the Sea Otter Research and Conservation program (SORAC), partnering with UCSC, US Geological Service, and the Monterey Bay Aquarium. After receiving my Bachelor of Science in Ecology and Evolution, I continued with SORAC and pursued a career with the California Department of Fish and Wildlife. For six years I performed field-work and developed the photography catalogue for the long-term diversity database of Northern California.
During this time I was fortunate to live and work abroad. I assisted with a variety of research programs including whale shark photo identification in Bahia de los Angeles, Mexico, and participate in Wildland Studies Program of CSU Monterey Bay throughout the country of Belize. I am thrilled to be a member of Dr. Gitte McDonald’s marine vertebrate ecology lab at Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, and am interested in the use and development of remote monitoring systems to better understand marine vertebrate behavior and physiology. I am currently working with Sea Otter Savvy to assess the energetic cost of human disturbance on the southern sea otter for my thesis. As a member of the vertebrate lab, I also assist with the marine mammal stranding network and manage the entries in the National Stranding Database.
I graduated from UC San Diego in 2010 with a degree in General Biology (physiology focus) on a pre-med track. I soon decided I liked ecology more than people biology, and set out to South America with a one-way ticket and almost no plan. 1.5 years and my full savings account later, I returned to the US via many buses, taxis, and a couple planes, and sporting a handful of conservation/biology experiences. A few outdoor education and field biology jobs led me to pursue my own career in marine biology (particularly concerning large predators), and in 2014 I began an internship in this lab.
For my Master’s thesis, I am investigating the underwater movement and foraging patterns of wild California sea lions. I am approaching this goal from two angles. First, I am working with trained sea lions at SLEWTHS (here in Moss Landing) to understand how accelerometers can be used to identify when sea lions make feeding attempts.This study will provide a method by which researchers can figure out where, in a dive, wild sea lions catch prey.Second, I am analyzing movement, energy expenditure, and foraging data from wild California sea lions at San Nicolas Island, CA. The idea here is to get high-quality instantaneous measurements of metabolic energy expenditure from movement data (acceleration, magnetic compass bearing, rotational velocity) recorded by a small animal-borne datalogger. I hope this research will improve our understanding of sea lions’ underwater movements and foraging patterns, and how these patterns relate to energy expenditure during foraging trips to sea.
My interest in ecology is broad and I enjoy working with a diversity of organisms, both terrestrial and marine. I began my Master of Science at Moss Landing Marine Laboratory in Fall 2014. As a graduate student, my research has focused on the interrelations between the local prey community, foraging effort and the ability to produce young for Common Murre nesting at Castle Rock National Wildlife Refuge over the last decade. This island is one of the largest seabird breeding colonies in the Pacific Ocean south of Alaska and is in an area of the California Current System where seabirds have rarely been studied.
Since 2009, I have supervised all aspects of seabird research at Castle Rock and have been fortunate enough to focus on an aspect of this larger project for my thesis project. Preliminary analyses show that Castle Rock is unique relative to other breeding colonies in the California Current System; the diet of murres nesting at here differs from other locations and murre behaviors suggest it is challenging to obtain adequate food to raise young. Access to the island is prohibited while seabirds are nesting and, to make detailed observations, I rely on a unique system of remotely operated cameras that are broadcast to the mainland using wireless technologies. You can watch live video of seabirds nesting at Castle Rock 24 hours per day during the breeding season (April to August)
Although I have dedicated a majority of my time to Castle Rock over the last decade, I have also assisted with various wildlife projects at Humboldt State University, Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, and H.T. Harvey & Associates Ecological Consultants. For a complete summary of my academic and professional experience, please check out the following links.