Wetlands are lands where saturation with water is the dominant factor determining the nature of soil development and the types of plant and animal communities living in the soil and on its surface (Cowardin, December 1979). In California there are many different types of wetlands which each provide unique and important habitat and ecological services. Types of wetlands include: Rivers/creeks/streams, estuaries, lagoons, vernal pools, lagoons, swamps, ponds, lakes, sloughs, marshes and many more. They can have freshwater, brackish water, and saltwater and can be wet year round or be dry for some of the year.
Why We Love Wetlands
Wetlands are a hugely important natural resource, providing environmental services we depend on, without asking anything in return. According to the USEPA "Wetlands are part of the foundation of our nation's water resources and are vital to the health of waterways and communities that are downstream. Wetlands feed downstream waters, trap floodwaters, recharge groundwater supplies, remove pollution, and provide fish and wildlife habitat. Wetlands are also economic drivers because of their key role in fishing, hunting, agriculture and recreation."
Benefits of Wetlands
Water Quality Improvements
Freshwater Retention and Storage
Using Wetlands For Water Quality Improvement
Introduction to treatment wetlands
For More information on one of CCWG's treatment wetlands, click here
- Nitrogen species (ammonia, nitrate, nitrite) and relative concentrations in incoming water
- Are there pesticides?
- Is there heavy metal contamination?
- Size of the watershed and volume of water to be treated in relation to residence time in wetland
- Soil chemistry and properties (i.e. clay, sandy, porosity)
- Food safety guidelines for adjacent farmlands
- Maintenance required for upkeep
- Pumping water into ponds or gravity fed
- Weed removal/vegetation restoration/erosion control
- Will plants be harvested for nitrogen removal or left to become carbon as leaf litter?